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Dating vergleich Würzburg

To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Martin Weale should log into the Re PEc Author Service.To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item.The aim is to bring together much of the existing descriptive and experimental information on how tree species from Central Amazonian floodplains react to complete submergence. Many grow to large trees, often with commercial value, and show extreme submergence tolerance not seen in any other ecosystem.They are able to overcome several weeks or months of complete submergence as foliated plants despite the stresses (see below) imposed by total inundation that can last several weeks or months each year.The sediment-rich white water floodplains of the Amazon River and its tributaries – called várzea (Prance, 1979) – are subjected to high rates of sediment deposition which can amount to 300–1000 mm each year (Junk, 1989, Campbell (Furch and Junk, 1997).These fine–coarse sediments increase the severity of hypoxia and prejudice leaf photosynthesis below water by imposing turbidity and depositing sediment on the leaf surfaces that remains after the floodwater recedes (Ewing, 1996).Trees have evolved to survive in a terrestrial environment.

Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the floodwater in the range 05–6·0 mg L have been recorded depending on the season and time of day (Furch and Junk, 1997).

More than 1000 tree species successfully survive and complete their life cycles in this region (Wittmann , 2006).

Submergence of terrestrial woody species is the main topic of the present review.

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In Central Amazonia, every year the river levels rise and fall by up to 10 m, causing an annual ‘flood-pulse’ (Junk , 1989, Fig. In contrast, in some years, water levels are untypically high and certain areas can remain waterlogged for two or more consecutive years. This fast rate of change negatively affects the effectiveness of morphological adaptations to flooding such as adventitious roots which are produced in the oxygen-rich surface layers of the water.